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USB hub


Nguva yekutumira: Sep-01-2021

A USB hub mudziyo unowedzera imwe Universal Serial Bus (USB) chiteshi kuita akati wandei kuitira kuti pave nezviteshi zvakawanda zviripo zvekubatanidza zvishandiso kune ahost system, yakafanana netambo yemagetsi.Midziyo yese yakabatana kuburikidza ne USB hub inogovera bandwidth inowanikwa kune iyo hub.

USB hubs inowanzo vakwa mumidziyo yakadai semakesi emakombuta, kiyibhodhi, mamonitor, kana maprinta.Kana mudziyo wakadaro uine akawanda ma USB ports, iwo ese anowanzo kubva kune imwe kana maviri emukati USB hubs pane kuti chiteshi chega chega chine yakazvimirira USB sedunhu.

Pamuviri akapatsanurwa ma USB hubs anouya mumhando dzakasiyana siyana dzemafomu: kubva kunze kwemabhokisi (anotarisa akafanana neEthernet kana network hub), kune madiki madhizaini anogona kubatirwa zvakananga mu USB port (ona iyo "compact dhizaini" mufananidzo)."Short cable" hubs dzinowanzoshandisa tambo ye6-inch (15 cm) kureba zvishoma hubhu diki kure nekusangana kwechiteshi uye kuwedzera huwandu hwezviteshi zviripo.

Anenge ese emazuva ano Laptop/notibhuku makomputa ane USB ports, asi yekunze USB hub inogona kubatanidza akati wandei mazuva ese (sembeva, keyboard kana printa) kuita imwe hubhu yekugonesa nhanho imwe chete yekunamatira uye kubviswa kwemidziyo yese.

Mamwe ma USB hubs anogona kutsigira kutakura kwemagetsi (PD) kuchaja bhatiri relaptop, kana iine simba uye yakatenderwa kuita kudaro, asi inogona kunzi iri nyore docking chiteshi nekuda kwechimiro chakafanana chekungoda chete kubatana kubhadharisa bhatiri. uye batanidza peripherals.

number (9)

Kurongeka kwemuviri

Iyo USB network inovakwa kubva ku USB hubs yakabatana kuzasi kune USB ports, iyo pachayo inogona kubva ku USB hubs.USB hubs inogona kuwedzera USB network kusvika pakakwirira 127 ports.Iyo USB dhizaini inoda kuti mabhazi-powered (passive) hubs haana kubatana munhevedzano kune mamwe mabhazi-ane simba hubs.

Zvichienderana nemutengesi uye dhizaini, USB ports inowanzo paradzana.Nekuda kweizvozvo, kubaya mudziyo muchiteshi chimwe chete kunogona kuvhara chiteshi chiri padyo, kunyanya kana plug isiri chikamu chetambo asi yakakosha kune mudziyo wakaita se USB flash drive.Rondedzero yakachinjika yemasoketi angave nyore kugadzira, asi anogona kukonzera maviri chete kubva mana madoko kuti ashandiswe (zvichienderana nehupamhi hweplug).

Port arrays umo chiteshi chengarava chiri perpendicular kune array orientation kazhinji ane mashoma ekuvharika matambudziko.Ekunze "Octopus" kana "Squid" hubs (ine socket imwe neimwe pamagumo etambo pfupi kwazvo, kazhinji inosvika 2 inches (5 cm) kureba), kana "nyeredzi" hubs (ine chiteshi chega chega chakatarisa kune rimwe divi, semufananidzo. ) dzivisa dambudziko iri zvachose.

number (7)

Kuganhurirwa kweurefu

Tambo dze USB dzinogumira kumamita matatu (mafitsi gumi) kune yakaderera-inomhanya USB 1.1 zvishandiso.Hub inogona kushandiswa seinoshingaira USB inodzokorora kureba kwetambo kusvika kumamita mashanu (16 tsoka) kureba panguva.Tambo dzinoshanda (specialized connector- embedded one-port hubs) dzinoita basa rimwe chete, asi sezvo dzichinyatsofambiswa nebhazi, kunze kwe USB hubs kungangodiwa kune mamwe masegment.

number (3)

Simba

Abhazi-powered hub (passive hub)ihubhu inokweva simba rayo rese kubva kune iyo komputa inotambira USB interface.Izvo hazvidi rakaparadzana simba rekubatanidza.Nekudaro, zvishandiso zvakawanda zvinoda simba rakawanda kupfuura nzira iyi inogona kupa uye haishande mumhando iyi yehubhu.Zvingave zvinodiwa kushandisa bhasi-powered hub ine self-powered ekunze hard-disks, sezvo iyo hard-disk inogona kusatenderera pasi kana komputa ichidzima kana kupinda mumodhi yekurara ichishandisa hubhu inozvimiririra kubva kune hard disk controller. yaizoenderera mberi nekuona sosi yemagetsi pane USB ports.

A USB's electric current yakagoverwa muzvikamu zve 100 mA kusvika kune inokwana 500 mA pachiteshi.Naizvozvo, bhazi rinoenderana nemagetsi hub rinogona kunge risingapfuure mana kuzasi zviteshi uye harigone kupa anopfuura mana 100 mA mayunitsi ezvino zvakazara kumidziyo yepasi (sezvo hub inoda imwe unit yega).Kana mudziyo uchida mamwe mayunitsi emazuvano kupfuura chiteshi chayakabairwa ichikwanisa kupa, sisitimu yekushandisa inowanzo zivisa izvi kumushandisi.
Mukusiyana, aself-powered hub (inoshanda hub)inotora simba rayo kubva kune yekunze magetsi ekupa uye saka inogona kupa yakazara simba (kusvika 500 mA) kune yega chiteshi.Mazhinji hubs anogona kushanda semabhazi anofambiswa nemagetsi kana ega ega.
Zvakadaro, kune akawanda asingateedzere hubs pamusika anozvizivisa kune muridzi seanozvifambisa kunyangwe aine mabhazi.Zvakangofanana, kune zvakawanda zvisingaenderane zvishandiso zvinoshandisa zvinopfuura 100 mA pasina kuzivisa chokwadi ichi.Aya hubs nemidziyo inobvumira kuchinjika mukushandiswa kwesimba (kunyanya, michina mizhinji inoshandisa isingasviki zana mA uye akawanda USB madoko anogona kupa anopfuura mazana mashanu mA asati apinda mukuvharika kwekuremerwa), asi ivo vanogona kugadzira. matambudziko emagetsi zvakaoma kuongorora.

Mamwe mahubhu anozviita ega haapi simba rakakwana rekutyaira 500 mA mutoro pachiteshi chese.Semuyenzaniso, akawanda manomwe ma port hubs ane 1 A magetsi, asi chokwadi zviteshi zvinomwe zvaigona kudhiza inodarika 7 x 0.5 = 3.5 A, pamwe nesimba rehub pachayo.Vagadziri vanofungidzira kuti mushandisi angangobatanidza akawanda akaderera magetsi zvishandiso uye imwe chete kana maviri inoda yakazara 500 mA.Kune rimwe divi, kurongedzerwa kwemamwe ma-powered hubs anotaura zvakajeka kuti mangani emachiteshi anogona kutyaira 500 mA yakazara mutoro kamwechete.Semuyenzaniso, kurongedzerwa pa7-port hub inogona kuti inotsigira inokwana mana-yakazara-yakazara michina.
Dynamic-powered hubsinzvimbo dzinokwanisa kushanda semabhazi anofambiswa nemagetsi pamwe neanozvifambisa ega.Ivo vanogona kushandura otomatiki pakati pemodhi zvichienderana nekuti yakasarudzika magetsi inowanikwa here kana kwete.Nepo kuchinja kubva pakushandisa bhazi kuenda kune rinozvifambisa pacharo hazvidi kuti pave nekukurumidzira kutaurirana neanotambira, kuchinja kubva kune yako wega kuenda kune inofambiswa nebhazi kunogona kuita kuti ma USB agadziriswe kana michina yakabatana yakambokumbira simba rakawanda kupfuura rinowanikwa mubhazi- powered mode.

number (2)

Speed

Kuti ubvumire dhizaini yepamusoro (USB 2.0) kuti ishande mukumhanya kwazvo, mahubs ese pakati pemidziyo nekombuta anofanira kunge ari kumhanya-mhanya.Zvishandiso zvekumhanya zvakanyanya zvinofanirwa kuwira kumashure kuzere-kumhanya (USB 1.1) kana yabairwa mu-full-speed hub (kana kubatanidza kune chekare-full-speed computer port).Nepo nzvimbo dzinomhanya-mhanya dzichikwanisa kutaurirana pamamhanyiro ese emidziyo, traffic yakaderera-uye yakazara-inosanganiswa uye yakapatsanurwa kubva kune inomhanya zvakanyanya kuburikidza nemushanduri weshanduko.Mushanduri wega wega weshanduko anopatsanura speed traffic yakaderera mudhamu rake, achigadzira bhazi rinomhanya.Mamwe magadzirirwo anoshandisa mushanduri mumwechete (STT), nepo mamwe madhizaini aine vaturikiri vakawanda (MTT).Kuve nevaturikiri vakawanda chinhu chakakosha chinobatsira kana munhu akabatanidza akawanda akakwira-bandwidth yakazara-kumhanya michina.

Iko kutarisisa kwakakosha kuti mumutauro wakajairika (uye kazhinji kushambadzira chigadzirwa), USB 2.0 inoshandiswa seyakafanana neyekumhanya-mhanya.Nekudaro, nekuti iyo USB 2.0 yakatarwa, iyo yakaunza yakakwira-kumhanya, inobatanidza iyo USB 1.1 yakatarwa zvekuti USB 2.0 mudziyo haufanirwe kushanda nekumhanya kwakanyanya, chero inoteedzera yakazara-kumhanya kana yakaderera-kumhanya inogona kuramba ichinyorwa se USB 2.0 mudziyo.Saka, haasi ese USB 2.0 hubs anoshanda nekumhanya kukuru.

USB 3.0ndiyo yechitatu hombe vhezheni yeUniversal Serial Bus (USB) chiyero chekubatanidza makomputa nemidziyo yemagetsi.Pakati pezvimwe zvigadziriso, USB 3.0 inowedzera mwero mutsva wekutamisa unonzi SuperSpeedUSB (SS) inokwanisa kuendesa data kusvika pa5 Gbit/s (625 MB/s), inomhanya zvakapetwa kagumi kupfuura USB 2.0 standard.Zvinokurudzirwa kuti vagadziri vasiyanise zvibatanidza zve USB 3.0 kubva kune avo USB 2.0 madhiri vachishandisa yebhuruu (Pantone 300C) yeStandard-A midziyo nemapulagi, [4] uye nekutanga SS.

USB 3.1, yakaburitswa muna Chikunguru 2013, ndiyo nhanho yekutsiva inotsiva iyo USB 3.0 standard.USB 3.1 inochengetedza iripo SuperSpeed ​​​​yekuchinjisa chiyero, ichipa iyo nyowani label USB 3.1 Gen 1, uku ichitsanangura nyowani SuperSpeed+ nzira yekufambisa, inonzi USB 3.1 Gen 2 iyo inogona kuendesa data kusvika gumi Gbit/s pamusoro peiyo iripo USB-mhando- A uye USB-C zvibatanidza (1250 MB/s, kaviri chiyero che USB 3.0).
USB 3.2, yakaburitswa munaGunyana 2017, inotsiva USB 3.1 standard.Iyo inochengetedza iripo USB 3.1 SuperSpeed ​​​​uye SuperSpeed ​​​​+ data modes uye inounza maviri matsva SuperSpeed ​​​​+ ekufambisa modhi pamusoro pe USB-C yekubatanidza uchishandisa maviri-nzira oparesheni, ine data mitengo yegumi uye 20 Gbit/s (1250 uye 2500 MB/s).

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Protocol

Imwe neimwe hubhu ine chiteshi chimwe chete chepamusoro uye akati wandei madoko ezasi.Chiteshi chepamusoro chinobatanidza hubhu (zvakananga kana kuburikidza nemamwe hubs) kune muenzi.Mamwe hubs kana zvishandiso zvinogona kusungirirwa kune yakadzika madoko.Munguva yekutapurirana kwakajairika, hubs dzakajeka: dhata yakagamuchirwa kubva pachiteshi chayo chekumusoro inotepfenyurwa kune ese maturusi akasungirirwa kumachiteshi ayo ezasi (nemufananidzo wakatsanangurwa mu USB 2.0 yakatarwa muFigure 11- 2, Hub Signaling Connectivity).Data inogamuchirwa kubva pachiteshi chepasi pemvura inowanzoendeswa kune chiteshi chepamusoro chete.Nenzira iyi, izvo zvinotumirwa nemuenzi zvinogamuchirwa neese hubs nemidziyo, uye izvo zvinotumirwa nemudziyo zvinotambirwa nemugamuchiri asi kwete nemimwe michina (kunze kwekutanga kusaina).Nzira yekudzika pasi yakashandurwa muUSB 3.0 nekuwedzera kwePoint to Point routing: Tambo yenzira inotumirwa mumusoro wepacket inobvumira USB 3.0 host kuti ingotumira yakadzika pakiti kune imwe chiteshi chekuenda, kudzikira kuungana uye kushandisa simba.

Hubs hadzina kujeka kana uchibata nekuchinja kwechimiro chezasi madoko, sekupinza kana kubviswa kwemidziyo.Kunyanya, kana chiteshi chezasi chehubhu chichichinja chimiro, shanduko iyi inoitwa mukudyidzana pakati pemugamuchiri nehabhu ino;ine chero hubs pakati pemugamuchiri uye "yakachinja hub" ichiita seyakajeka.

Nechinangwa ichi, hubhu yega yega ine imwe yekukanganisa endpoint "1 IN" (endpoint kero 1, hub-to-host direction) inoshandiswa kuratidza shanduko yemamiriro ezviteshi zvepasi.Kana mumwe munhu abaya mudziyo, hubhu inoona voltage paD+ kana D- uye inosaina kuiswa kune iyo inomiririra kuburikidza neino vhiringa magumo.Kana mugadziri achivhota iyi inovhiringa magumo, inonzwa kuti mudziyo mutsva uripo.Inobva yaraira hubhu (kuburikidza nepombi yekudzora yakasarudzika) kuti igadzirise zvakare chiteshi payakavharirwa mudziyo mutsva. Reset iyi inoita kuti mudziyo mutsva utore kero 0, uye muridzi anogona kuzodyidzana nawo zvakananga;Kudyidzana uku kuchaita kuti mugadziri ape kero nyowani (isina-zero) kumushini.

number (4)

Transaction muturikiri

Chero USB 2.0 hub inotsigira mwero wepamusoro kupfuura USB 1.1 (12 Mbit/ s) inoturikira pakati peyero yakaderera neyepamusoro-soro uchishandisa inonzi transaction translator (TT).Semuyenzaniso, kana mudziyo we USB 1.1 wakabatana nechiteshi pa USB 2.0 hub, TT ​​inozoziva nekuturikira masaini e USB 1.1 kuenda ku USB 2.0 pauplink.Zvisineyi, dhizaini yagara iripo ndeyekuti michina yese yepasi-yakajairwa inogovera mushanduri mumwe chete weshanduro uye nekudaro kugadzira bhodhoro, gadziriso inozivikanwa semushanduri mumwe chete.Nekuda kweizvozvo, vaturikiri veshanduro dzakawanda (Multi- TT) vakagadzirwa, izvo zvinopa vaturikiri veshanduko vakawanda zvekuti mabhodhoro anodziviswa.Ziva kuti USB 3.0 hubs haisi kuita shanduro yekushandura kune super-speed yemidziyo ye USB 2.0.

number (5)

Electronic design

Mazhinji ma USB hubs anoshandisa imwechete kana anopfuura akasanganiswa controller (ICs), ayo akati wandei madhizaini anowanikwa kubva kune vakasiyana vagadziri.Mazhinji anotsigira mana- port hub system, asi hubs anoshandisa gumi nematanhatu- port hub controller anowanikwawo muindasitiri.Bhazi re USB rinobvumira nhanho nomwe dzinoyerera dzezviteshi.Midzi hub ndiyo yekutanga tier, uye zvishandiso zvekupedzisira zviri pachikamu chechinomwe, zvichibvumira 5 tiers akakosha ehubs pakati pawo.Nhamba yepamusoro yezvishandiso zvevashandisi inoderedzwa nehuwandu hwehubs.Iine 50 hubs akabatanidzwa, nhamba yepamusoro i127− 50 = 77.

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Inverse kana kugovera hubs (KVM)

Zvakare zviripo "kugovera hubs", izvo zvinonyatso kudzosera kumashure kwe USB hub, zvichibvumira akati wandei maPC kuwana (kazhinji) imwe peripheral.Dzinogona kunge dziri dzemanyorero, zvinonyatso chinja-chinja-bhokisi, kana otomatiki, ichibatanidza michina inoziva kuti ndeipi komputa inoda kushandisa peripheral uye inochinja zvinoenderana.Ivo havagone kupa anopfuura PC imwe kuwana panguva imwe chete.Mamwe mamodheru, zvisinei, ane kugona kudzora akawanda maperipheral akaparadzana (semuenzaniso, maPC maviri uye mana maperipherals, achigovera kupinda zvakasiyana).Kuchinja kwakapfava kunowanzoita otomatiki, uye chimiro ichi chinowanzovaisa pamutengo wepamusoro zvakare.Mazuva ano "keyboard, vhidhiyo uye mbeva" switch (KVM) inogonawo kazhinji kugovera midziyo ye USB pakati pemakomputa akati wandei.


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